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Research: How Does CBD Work in People with Anxiety Disorder?

Research: how does CBD work in people with anxiety disorder?

How cannabidiol therapy (CBD) can affect patients with anxiety disorders has been independently investigated by student Jonah Decker and colleagues from the categories of economics, biochemistry, social sciences and psychology. The aim was to prove whether the relevant patient could be helped by taking cannabidiol (CBD) regularly. One of them is the fight against the so-called “social anxiety disorder”.

People with this type of phobia are afraid of being seen by other people as “strange”. Depending on the severity of the disease, this leads to more or less serious restrictions in daily life. An estimated 7 to 12 percent of the world’s people suffer from social phobia. Currently, this form of anxiety disorder is treated with either psychotherapy or drug therapy (often thymoleptic).

Various studies have suggested that cannabidiol may have a positive effect on the effects of social anxiety disorder. In the recent past, several people have already given the opportunity to medications containing CBD. The industry’s profits are increasing. Interest is growing. It’s a placebo effect, isn’t it? How or can cannabidiol even help cure or reduce anxiety disorder in this case?

Basic documents for research on cannabidiol (CBD).

A study by student Yona Decker and fellow students was characterized by the following key findings:

  • Duration of training is 30 days.
  • Before and after the investigation were compared with each other.
  • 15% CBD oil was consumed by 19 subjects, 18 subjects – without their knowledge – received a placebo (in the form of rapeseed oil).
  • 40 subjects (or 37 because three of the participants dropped out of the study) who were on social media, had an average age of 32 and had an anxiety disorder with a degree in social anxiety disorder.
    Before the study began, of course, the participants were examined by a physician for any health limitations.

CBD study result.

After thirty days of the study, it was found that in 17 out of 19 cases and an average of 32%, the anxiety scores of subjects who used cannabidiol (CBD) improved, to put it more

Clearly: before the study, the level of anxiety was 4.1 (on a scale from 1 (no discomfort) to 5 (very severe discomfort)), and after 3.2. Perceived anxiety symptoms were reduced with cannabidiol intake. In contrast, the placebo was not significantly effective.
If there is a social phobia, research suggests that taking cannabidiol may be beneficial and advisable at an appropriate dose.

This also applies to appropriate compatibility during the investigation. Only one subject was briefly overtired. Otherwise, test subjects tolerated cannabidiol oil (CBD) optimally.

The cannabidiol dose remained relatively low during the study.

CBD.

Research has shown that taking cannabidiol (CBD) regularly can actually help combat anxiety disorder based on a relatively low dose of social phobia. However, it should also always be remembered that the subjects consumed CBD oil themselves and in their familiar environment. Consequently, consumption could not be precisely controlled.

Since there was no improvement in anxiety disorder, it can be assumed that the overall placebo effect could be excluded with rapeseed oil treatment.

However, making the study more meaningful will require a larger group of subjects. In this regard, it has not yet been scientifically proven that cannabidiol oil (CBD) is actually the most effective treatment for anxiety disorders. More comprehensive alternative research is needed here.

What is cannabidiol?

When it comes to CBD, countless people think of cannabis and thus a banned substance. But: unlike cannabis, which contains over 80 different chemicals, a cannabinoid, and therefore cannabidiol (CBD), is not psychoactive.

Thus, the participants in the study, which was also already studied in studies by scientists Zuardi, Crippa, Garrido and Vicert-Ana, benefited from its calming effect.

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Replace plastic with hemp

Replace plastic with hemp

For decades, plastics have been an important material for the products of industrial companies. Properties such as lightness, durability and flexibility have made them indispensable. Unfortunately, the materials that we call “plastic” pose a significant environmental burden.
This has been known for a long time, but only in the last few years have people begun to become aware of the environment and nature. Now they are trying to replace plastic with creative ideas. It is difficult to rethink and implement them in practice, but they stimulate innovative thinking of environmentally conscious people and companies. In fact, hemp is replacing some environmentally harmful materials.

Disadvantages of petrochemical plastics.

Common plastics are known as petrochemical plastics. Petrochemicals produce petroleum-based plastics, which means that petroleum is the backbone of the products. This fact in itself makes it clear that these products and their production are not without problems, since oil is a raw material, the extraction of which means using the planet.

Hemp plastic against the greenhouse effect.

Hemp has been experiencing a renaissance for several years now. Legalizing cannabis removes the stigma from the plant. This, in turn, has rediscovered or reinvented numerous ways to use different parts of the plant. Hemp plastic is one of them. The fiber that can be used to make biodegradable plastic comes from stems, which are mostly cellulose. Even while growing, hemp has a negative CO2 balance. During this period, the plant already benefits the environment, and therefore us. Thus, hemp binds CO2 and releases oxygen. This counteracts global warming, the so-called greenhouse effect. On the other hand, the petrochemical plastics industry emits CO2 and other toxic substances.

Examples of the use of hemp plastic.

Anyone who thinks that plastics made from hemp fibers are a recent invention is wrong. Hemp was part of the earliest plastics. Even Henry Ford used this material in 1941 to make automobiles. He used it to make a hemp composite body. Hemp is socially acceptable again today, and you can find hemp plastic in many everyday products. CD boxes, musical instruments and some electronic devices contain hemp fiber, albeit in insufficient quantities. Another good example is the hemp laptop sleeve available from Hanfhaus.

Composite hemp laptop sleeve.

Hemp laptop case is made of hemp composite material. 30 percent is hemp, 20 percent is kenaf (the botanical name for Hibiscus Cannabinus is a tropical or subtropical mallow plant from which fiber and oil are derived) and 50 percent is polypropylene. Although it is plastic, polypropylene is considered to be less harmful to health and the environment because it contains no plasticizers and remains elastic. The body also owes its appearance to hemp, since the fibers in the material are clearly visible. A practical and environmentally friendly product that will appeal to hemp lovers. A great example of using hemp as a substitute for traditional plastic where the world needs more.

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Cannabis.

Effects.

Effects and duration of action depend on dosage, frequency of use, setting (person) and setting (environment) and therefore can be quite different. Cannabis exposure can alter perceptions of time and heighten emotional states and perceptions. This can lead to improved well-being, increased sensitivity, mild euphoria, vigor, or relaxation. Hallucinations can also occur with high doses (especially when taken orally). The effect is felt from 1 to 4 hours if smoked and 4 to 10 hours if taken orally.

Negative effects.

Increased heart and pulse rate, redness of the eyes, and dry mouth are common. Some negative effects are more likely to occur when first used, including dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. During acute exposure to cannabis, mental performance is reduced. Mainly memory, attention and concentration suffer. The higher the dose, the more severe the side effects may be: circulatory problems, very strong feelings, and mild hallucinations. Paranoia and depressed moods may also occur less frequently.

Mechanism of action.

Cannabis is mostly smoked or consumed orally (for example, as a cookie ingredient). The active ingredients (especially THC) are absorbed through the lung mucosa during smoking and through the intestinal mucosa when taken orally. Hundreds of different substances enter the body through the use of cannabis (especially through smoking). Thus, the exact mechanisms of action have so far been only partially investigated. THC is transported in the bloodstream to all organs. Although most of the effects of cannabis are only felt for a few hours, after 20 hours, half of the absorbed THC is still in the blood.

THC binds to cannabinoid receptors, which are primarily located in the brain. These receptors control the brain and body functions (including memory, time perception, hunger, coordination, and movement) that cannabis use affects. Besides THC, other cannabinoids also bind to these receptors and affect the effects of cannabis, such as cannabidiol (CBD). Recent research suggests that CBD can reduce unpleasant effects (psychological symptoms). This means cannabis strains with too much THC and too low CBD may have more risks and side effects.

Possible long-term consequences.

Because cannabis smoke is usually inhaled more deeply and lingers in the lungs longer than regular cigarette smoke, more pollutants are absorbed into the lungs than cigarettes (carbon monoxide and tar). With chronic use, smoking increases the susceptibility to respiratory diseases (such as bronchitis and pneumonia). With prolonged daily use, decreased activity and loss of motivation and interest can occur. Short-term memory may deteriorate within 6-12 weeks after stopping daily cannabis use. If cannabis is used very often for a long period of time (months – years) (several times a day), it may happen that a person loses some or all control over consumption. This can lead to psychological dependence.

Never use cannabis if you have:

  • Lung disease and existing heart problems or heart disease, as THC puts additional strain on the heart and circulation.
  • For anxiety, depression or psychological problems, as cannabis can exacerbate these negative feelings.
  • THC passes to the fetus through the placenta and to the baby through breast milk. Some – but not all – studies show that pregnant women who regularly use cannabis give birth to babies that are lighter and less tall at birth. Therefore, you should avoid using cannabis during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Special: mixed consumption.

Cannabis and ecstasy, amphetamine, cocaine, LSD and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

Some users use cannabis to “break away” from stimulant drugs such as amphetamine or ecstasy. Mixed consumption, however, puts more stress on your body, lengthens the hangover after the effects have passed, and increases the likelihood of anxiety and horrific hallucinations.

Reducing risks.

Anyone who uses cannabis, despite health and legal risks, should be aware of the following in addition to the general guidelines for risk reduction:

  1.  Smoking can reduce the risk of lung and respiratory diseases by using good filters or a vaporizer. Oral administration does not cause lung stress.
  2.  In the case of oral administration, the effect is delayed for a maximum of 1 hour, but the effect is stronger and longer than from smoking. Therefore, overdose is more common. So wait for the full effect before thinking of a “supplement”.
  3.  If possible, use only in your spare time and when you are feeling well. Because negative sentiments can intensify.
  4.  THC affects your attention, memory and concentration. Therefore, avoid consumption at work, school, while studying, driving a car, etc.

Cannabis is a generic term for hashish and marijuana. Hashish and marijuana are both made from hemp. It contains hundreds of active ingredients called cannabinoids. The main psychoactive ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Other cannabinoids include CBD and CBN. The THC concentration is especially high in the resin of the female inflorescences. Hashish is made from this resin. Marijuana is a mixture of plant parts (leaves, flowers, stems). When hemp plants are grown using chemicals (fertilizers, fungicides, and pesticides), they can contain chemical residues.

History.

Cannabis is a generic term for hashish and marijuana from hemp products. Hemp was used as a textile material 6,000 years ago, and the psychotropic properties of cannabis have been known just as long. As a sacred intoxicant, cannabis is dedicated to the god Shiva in Hinduism and is used in rituals and traditional medicine in Asia as a sedative or pain reliever. In Europe, Marco Polo first reported the use of cannabis as an intoxicant in the 13th century. Cannabis is gaining in importance in modern medicine, especially in the treatment of patients with glaucoma, as well as for suppressing nausea and stimulating appetite in cancer and AIDS patients.

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Cannabis as a cure for insomnia.

An Australian study tests the effects of cannabis on people with chronic insomnia.

Insomnia, also known as “insomnia” in medical jargon, is a serious illness that has grown steadily over the past several decades. According to the DAK Health Report of the Federal Republic of Germany, every tenth citizen suffers from chronic problems with falling asleep or sleeping. In the United States, the estimated number of people with insomnia is about 30% of the total population. If insomnia is left untreated, it can lead to serious psychological complications such as depression and paranoia.

Sometimes doctors use sedatives or psychotherapy to treat the disease. The latest results from an Australian study show that the use of cannabis in treatment produces significantly better results.

The study was initiated in 2018 by the Australian medicinal cannabis manufacturer Zelira Therapist, led by researchers from the University of Western Australia. The subjects were 23 people with severe and chronic sleep disorders. For two weeks, some of the subjects were given a cannabinoid tincture made with THC and CBD injected, while others received a placebo. Sleep quality was measured according to various criteria. Digital sleep trackers showed the depth of sleep on monitors. Subjects were then questioned in detail about their sleep experiences after each night. The Severity of Insomnia Index (ISI), a medical scale that helps doctors measure the severity of symptoms, measures whether sleep is improving or worsening.

After two weeks, it was found that those subjects who received an active dose of cannabinoids fell asleep faster and their sleep quality improved steadily. The ISI fell more than 26%, according to researchers. According to the subjects themselves, the quality of life was significantly improved by improving sleep.
The participants who received the placebo did not have any improvement in sleep quality over others.
Peter Eastwood, the head of the experiment, concluded that this study, more than any other insomnia study, confirms the therapeutically highly effective value of medicinal cannabis.

The cannabinoid tincture, which a company called ZLT-101, whose composition falls under a trade secret, has been successfully tested in other studies in patients with pain. Despite their physical complaints, they were able to fall asleep faster and sleep longer. However, research has also shown that daily consumption of the tincture can lead to the rapid development of cannabinoid tolerance. Possible consequences are resumption of sleep disturbances. In any case, the study is considered conclusive proof that medicinal cannabis is a natural alternative to chemical drugs for insomnia. Thus, in the future, this form of treatment will take a special place in modern medicine.

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Terpenes: what do they do with cannabis and what are their effects?

The cannabis plant is made up of a wide variety of chemicals and compounds. About 140 of these belong to a large class of aromatic organic hydrocarbons known as terpenes. You may have also heard people talk about terpenoids. The words terpene and terpenoid are increasingly being used interchangeably, although the terms have different meanings. The main difference between terpenes and terpenoids is that terpenes are hydrocarbons (that is, the only elements are carbon and hydrogen), while terpenoids are denatured by oxidation (drying and curing the flowers) or chemically modified.

What are terpenes?

Terpenes are common components of flavorings. Terpenes, unlike cannabinoids, are responsible for the flavor of cannabis. The FDA and other health authorities have generally recognized terpenes as “safe”. Terpenes act on receptors and neurotransmitters. They are very vulnerable when it comes to pooling or dissolving in lipids or fats. They act as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (similar to antidepressants such as Prozac). They improve the activity of norepinephrine (similar to tricyclic antidepressants such as elavil). They increase dopamine activity. And they complement GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). However, more specific research is needed to be able to make more accurate predictions and predictions.

The terpenes in cannabis are synthesized in the secretory cells of the glandular trichomes and their production is increased with additional lighting. These terpenes are mainly found in high concentrations in unfertilized female cannabis flowers prior to aging (a condition or process that deteriorates with age). The essential oil is extracted from plant materials by steam distillation or evaporation. Many terpenes evaporate at about the same temperature as THC (which boils around 157 ° C), but some terpenes are more volatile than others. Terpenes also play an incredibly important role in the natural defense of plants against bacteria and fungi, insects and other environmental stresses.
It is widely known that cannabis can affect the mind, emotions and behavior. The main psychotropic cannabinoid, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been extensively studied. However, many of the other cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids found in medical marijuana that play an important role in the therapeutic effects of cannabis remain underestimated.

Synergistic effects.

Research by Carlini et al showed that there is a potentiation (a form of synaptic plasticity essential for learning and memory) of the effects of THC from other substances present in cannabis. A double-blind study found that cannabis with the same or higher levels of CBD and CBN relative to THC had two to four times the effect expected when THC alone was injected.

These assumptions were supported by a study published by Wilkinson et al. Research conducted to determine if there is any benefit to using hemp extracts over using isolated THC. Standardized cannabis extract THC, CBD and CBN (SCE), one with pure THC and one with non-THC extract (CBD) have been tested in a multiple sclerosis (MS) mouse model and an epilepsy rat brain slice model.

The researchers found that SCE suppressed spasticity in the MS model to levels comparable to THC alone, and that muscle relaxation began earlier and the time to maximum effect was shorter than with THC alone. CBD did not suppress spasticity. However, in the epilepsy model, SCE was a much stronger and faster-acting anticonvulsant than isolated THC. However, in this model, CBD has also shown anticonvulsant activity. CBD does not suppress seizures or modulate THC activity in this model. Hence, for some of the manifestations of cannabis (e.g. anti-spasticity), THC was an active ingredient that could be altered by other components. However, for other effects (eg, anticonvulsant properties) THC, while active, may not be required for the observed effect. Most importantly, these results indicate that not all therapeutic effects are available. The cannabis plant can be classified as containing THC.

Dr. Ethan Russo also supports this theory with scientific evidence, demonstrating that non-cannabinoid plant compounds such as terpenes act as inhibitors of the intoxicating effects of THC, thereby increasing the THC therapeutic index. This “synergy of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids,” as Russo calls it, increases the potential of medicinal cannabis extracts for treating pain, inflammation, fungal and bacterial infections, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, and even cancer.

What are flavonoids?

Flavonoids are one of the largest families of nutrients known to scientists and contain over 6,000 compounds that have already been identified. About 20 of these compounds, including apigenin, quercetin, canflavin A and cannflavin B (formerly unique to cannabis), β-sitosterol, vitexin, isovitexin, kaempferol, luteolin, and orientin, have been found in the cannabis plant. Flavonoids are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They also contribute to the vibrant color of many foods (such as blue in blueberries or red in raspberries).

Several flavonoids extracted from the cannabis plant have been tested for pharmacological effects. The clinical results are promising, but more research is needed to understand what role flavonoids may play in the overall therapeutic effects of cannabis treatment, in particular how they interact with cannabinoids, enhancing them synergistically or decreasing their effects.

Terpene wheel.

Terpenes have been found to be important building blocks of complex plant hormones and molecules, pigments, sterols, and even cannabinoids. First of all, terpenes are responsible for the pleasant or less pleasant aroma of cannabis and the physiological effects associated with it. When choosing a medicine, patients are often asked to smell cannabis. The idea is that certain scents help identify different strains and their effects.

As a study by Casano et al shows, medical marijuana varieties can vary widely from one source to another, and even from one crop to another. However, those with a relatively high concentration of certain terpenes make it easier to identify by smell. Most agree that strains with a musk or clove scent have a calming, relaxing effect (high terpene levels in myrcene). Resinous taste promotes mental alertness and memory skills (high content of terpene pinene). Lemon scent improves overall mood and uplifts mood (high lime content).

In spectral analysis done by Green House Seed Co., they were able to identify all the terpenes in their strains. They then developed a “scent wheel” to help medical marijuana patients choose their preferred strains based on the desired effect. While one of the wheel’s primary goals was to promote various seeds for this particular company, the concept used is becoming an invaluable tool for medical marijuana patients, caregivers and cultivators.

Since then, several companies have developed their own terpene and flower wheels, albeit for the same reasons, to promote their product or service, and that’s okay. By mapping terpene profiles, we can predict and even manipulate the effects and medicinal value of strains, giving growers endless opportunities to grow new, highly regarded cannabis flowers, making breeding decisions based on real-world analytical data. The more we can communicate in one language, the easier it is for everyone to clearly understand what medications they are taking.

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USA: North Carolina Parliament Considers Cannabis Decriminalization Act

The other day, a bill was presented to the North Carolina Parliament proposing to decriminalize cannabis personal use to state citizens . Besides the fact that the bill legalizes the storage of up to three ounces of ready-to-eat cannabis, as well as cancels any form of criminal and administrative sanctions against violators, he also proposes to organize an amnesty system for people who have previously committed misconduct related to cannabis. It is assumed that a fee of $ 100 for filing a formal petition, such violations can be completely eliminated from the personal history. Unfortunately, the reforms will relate exclusively to the use of cannabis in plant form and in the form of liquid extracts. Eating hashish and hemp food is still strictly prohibited.

The author of the bill, Senator Paul Lowe, tells reporters that he is actively attracting his colleagues to support this bill. “In general, we are gradually moving in the right direction,” he says . Last year, Mr. Lowe tried to conduct a similar bill of decriminalization through parliament, but without much success. “I learned from the failure of the old project, making some adjustments to the new version of the bill, with the help of which it will be possible to win over the more conservative-minded legislators.”

In general, since the end of last year, the state legislature has been determined to undertake decisive reforms in relation to cannabis. For example, last November, MP Kelly Alexander addressed the meeting with a call to support the process of regional legalization, which, in recent years, has reached the east coast of the United States. Alexander, elected in 2009, throughout his career, has repeatedly advocated campaigns aimed at expanding reforms related to medical marijuana.

Among other things, public opinion polls show that for a couple of years, the sympathy for the full legalization of cannabis has increased among the population of North Carolina. In addition, many community leaders, such as district heads, members of both political parties and major businessmen, support the idea of ​​regulating the marijuana market in order to gain social and financial gain .

Finally, it is worth noting that the state is unlikely to ignore the idea of ​​settling the recreational cannabis market, since the region is already actively developing the branch of technical plant production. As a member of a trial program of limited legalization of the cultivation of technical hemp, North Carolina, has been involved in testing the profitability of this type of farm for several years, eventually coming to impressive economic results. As of the end of 2017, the state was one of the country’s leading centers in the production of technical hemp, with 2,500 acres of cultivated area . In the same year, Industrial Hemp Manufacturing, LLC and Hemp, Inc. settled in the state, building the largest plant tissue processing plants in the country.

With the formal legalization of technical hemp at the national level at the beginning of the year, it can be expected that the region’s technical hemp production sector will continue to grow at an extremely dynamic pace. For your information, from the beginning of the year, the University of North Carolina administration reports that about 500 farmers signed up for a special course in cannabiship for a period of two years, in order to master a new branch of a now legal and profitable economy.

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USA: The New York City Ministry of Health will ban consumption of CBD products in public places

The other day, the health bureau under the government of New York City announced to the public its decision to completely ban the use of CBD containing products in public places, such as clubs, bars and restaurants. Despite the fact that technically, the CBD was completely legalized throughout the country along with the technical cannabis, after the adoption of the bill on agricultural reform at the beginning of the year, a representative of the bureau told the press that extracts of CBD could not be used in public places until formal certification products with substance by local sanitary authorities.

“At the moment, restaurants and bars of the city will not be able to serve customers products containing CBD supplements, for the reason that the safety of this compound for human consumption has not yet been verified by the local sanitary services,” the position of the city health ministry states . “After the safety of food additives containing CBD will be confirmed by doctors, we will consider the possibility of legalizing the consumption of this category of products in public places.

Of course, many shops in the city, which for several years had been free to distribute CBD in the form of food and drinks, reacted negatively to such an unexpected offer. For example, Dorothy Stepanovskaya, who owns the hemp Flower Garden coffee house in Queens, said that she, along with several other businessmen of the district, would protest against the new law, because it literally threatens the existence of a legal business.

“We see no point in making such a decision,” she tells reporters. “In our products there is no gram of psychoactive THC, which causes the characteristic hemp intoxication. CBD is a medicine, not a drug. I do not see any logic in limiting the spread of this substance! ”

As Miss Stepanovskaya notes, many entrepreneurs working with cannabis expected new restrictions of the market from the city authorities, however, the new decision passed all permissible features, directly threatening their business.

“We were waiting for us to be forced to get licenses to trade, or to ban certain types of products, like sweets, but not a complete ban on CBD products,” she says. “This ban literally instantly made us bankrupt!”

Further action by the city mayor’s office:

Mayor of the city, Bill De Blasio, has not yet announced his position on the new restriction, however, journalists report that he approves of the work of the Ministry of Health in New York.

“In matters of sanitary control, I would prefer to trust the position of experts of the city Ministry of Health,” said De Blasio. “Listen, some of the best doctors in the country work in this service, and if they say that there is a risk in selling CBD food, I would prefer to trust their positions. So far, I have not personally communicated with representatives of the Ministry of Health, I am sure that they have rational justifications for the new ban. Somewhat later, I will be able to describe in more detail the further fate of this ban, however, first I need to study the problem in more detail and communicate with experts. ”

CJ Holmes, the owner of Fat Cat Kitchen in Manhattan, said that the city’s sanitary inspectors had already begun to block the sale of food and beverage to the CBD since last Friday when they described all of its coffeehouse products. “At the end of last week, a couple of inspectors in suits broke in, asked a bunch of questions, unpacked the extracts in packages and left in an unknown direction, without telling us anything about what was happening,” Holmes said in a conversation with journalists .

“We don’t even know what we could break,” Holmes continues. “In the end, I had to call the Ministry of Health of the city itself, however, no one there literally knew what a CBD was! Only the third operator on the phone has guessed what a CBD is, and only after she searched for the term on the Internet! In other words, these people confiscate our CBD, while not even understanding what they are fighting! ”.

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How will the decoding of the hemp genome affect the development of hemp medicine?

How will the decoding of the hemp genome affect the development of hemp medicine?

According to Dr. Mac Kiernan, before the start of the cannabis genome project, the scientists studied only 12 genes in the plant, while now, at the end of the work, several tens of thousands of marijuana genes are fully studied and ordered. In addition, thanks to the project, more than 2 million variations of nucleotides in the hemp genome have become known to science, which allowed the researcher to make a lot of new discoveries regarding the genetic mechanisms responsible for the synthesis of certain cannabinoids.

According to the doctor, the first such discovery was the fact that THC synthase is not one separate diploid gene synthesizing exclusively one compound, but a complex of genes capable, depending on its variation, produces structurally related THC substances that are other active cannabinoids. “In fact, contrary to previously known data, the sequencing of the plant’s genome demonstrated that parts of the hemp genes responsible for the synthesis of THC passed about 8 replications using the DNA transport elements in the history of this species, eventually acquiring a chemical structure that allows for such a high variation in terms of making different unique cannabinoid compounds at various concentrations, ”asserts Mac Kiernan ? .

Dr. Ethan Russo, who is the most respected specialist in cannabis medicine in the United States, reports to journalists that knowledge of the exact structure of the genes responsible for the synthesis of cannabinoids, as well as their variations, will allow genetic specialists to produce unique “synthetic” hemp hybrids in the future will naturally produce cannabinoids, including quite rare compounds found in natural plants, in necessary quantities.

“Of course, the promulgation of the cannabis genome map markedly stimulates the field of new developments in the field of medical use of cannabis,” says Dr. Russo. “At the moment, the development of unique therapeutic varieties of cannabis with the help of genetic manipulations are still at a rudimentary level, however, the available information reveals before us literally an ocean of new promising developments to increase the effectiveness of hemp medicine. In particular, the initial starting point for the creation of hemp hybrids containing exotic cannabinoids can be the development of such varieties of hemp plants that will have a strictly fixed concentration of THC or CBD, which is not subject to such strong fluctuations as is observed in natural hybrids. ”

In the future, according to Rousseau, the use of epigenetics to study the cannabis genome will theoretically allow scientists to produce plants with a genome designed to produce high concentrations of cannabinoids not observed in the natural environment, or plants, where the effects of certain therapeutic compounds will be complemented by increased production with them in synergy of terpenes and flavonoids.

“For example, we will be able to produce such types of cannabis, which, in fact, will contain only high concentrations of CBD, added by terpenes entering with them in synergy, to extract the maximum strong and controlled healing effect from a similar plant or its extracts”, suggests Dr. Russo. “By analogy, we will be able to create specialized varieties of cannabis, with well-adjusted and constant dosage of certain substances that can be easily and simply used for the treatment of certain groups of diseases or of certain specific ailments.”

In addition, Rousseau, as well as many of his colleagues, support the development of such “artificial” types of cannabis, as an effective measure to circumvent the legal barriers to the production and distribution of medical cannabis or its specific components in the United States and other countries of the world. Mac Kiernan himself ? believes that with the use of the science of bioinformatics, experts will be able to learn to “program” the cannabis genes themselves, for breeding unique cultures of cannabinoid compounds, which in principle are not found in nature.

“It’s not that this technology could completely overshadow the skills of cannabis, however, with it, scientists can calmly, without unnecessary legal barriers, produce new therapeutic compounds using legally available variations of technical cannabis that can be programmed to create cannabinoids highly specialized properties, ”he says.

Of course, some medical professionals, such as Dr. Donald Abrams, a hematologist and oncologist from the San Francisco Central Hospital, believe that geneticists should focus on the already studied, natural cannabinoids, rather than synthetics, relying on the often deplorable experience of using analogues data compounds as a substitute for phyto compounds. “Even without an accurate study of the genome of the cannabis plant, we know what properties phytocannabinoids have, as well as their influence on the functioning of the human body,” suggests the physician. “Patients require proven and affordable medicines or access to the cannabis plant itself and the right to cultivate it.